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            Muscle-secreted granulocyte colony-stimulating factor functions as metabolic niche factor ameliorating loss of muscle stem cells in aged mice

            Hu Li1, Qian Chen1, Changyin Li1, Ran Zhong1, Yixia Zhao1, Qianying Zhang1, Weimin Tong2,3,

            Dahai Zhu1,4, * & Yong Zhang1, **
            EMBO J e102154 2019 Nov 18 [Online ahead of print]
            PMID: 31736098
            Abstract
            The function and number of muscle stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) decline with muscle aging. Although SCs are heterogeneous and different subpopulations have been identified, it remains unknown whether a specific subpopulation of muscle SCs decreases during aging. Here, we find that the number of SCs expressing high level of transcription factor Pax7 (Pax7Hi) is dramatically reduced in aged mice. Myofiber-secreted granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) regulates age-dependent loss of Pax7Hi cells, as the Pax7Hi SCs are replenished by exercise-induced G-CSF in aged mice. Mechanistically, we show that transcription of G-CSF (Csf3) gene in myofibers is regulated by MyoD in a metabolism-dependent manner. Furthermore, myofiber-secreted G-CSF acts as a metabolic niche factor required for establishing and maintaining the Pax7Hi SC subpopulation in adult and physiological aged mice by promoting the asymmetric division of Pax7Hi and Pax7Mi SCs. Together, our findings uncov er that muscles provide a metabolic niche regulating Pax7 SC heterogeneity in mice.